Peter the Great, the third tsar of the Romanovsí dynasty is identified as "The Great" in the history
of the Great Russian People. "Great" is a very significant word. What were those "great deeds" that Piotr Alekseevich Romanov (1672-1725)
did to earn such a famous name in the history?!
"With other European people it is possible to achieve an aim using humane methods, and with Russians it is not... I have to work with
non-humans, with animals, whom I want to transform into humans". this Peterís I documented phrase shows clearly his attitude toward the
Russian people (1).
It is hard to believe, that these "animals", appreciating his attitude towards them, called him "The Great". Russophobes will say at once
that, indeed, he made humans from animals, and only because of him Russia became the Great Russia, and "animals" converted into humans g
ave him the name of "The Great" with enormous gratitude.
Most likely, this was the way the Romanovsí masters thanked him for a job done perfectly: the elimination of the vestiges of the Russian
peopleís grandeur, which had given no rest to the rulers of Western European states (which quite recently had been remote outlying Russian
provinces), who wanted to create their own "Great History" and the Russian peopleís grandeur prevented them from creating that history.
One of Peterís "great acts" for the good of the Russian people was the conversion to the Christian calendar. As a result, 5,508
years of Russian history (from the day of the signing of a peace treaty in the Star Temple) disappeared, along with thousands of years of history
before it. It is such a "trifle" Ė twenty to thirty thousand years, isnít it?
Moreover, this act was a complete nonsense from the logical point of view. Peter I declared himself Emperor of the Russian Empire
and these "unnecessary" thousands of years of Russiaís past would have served as a ground of the title of the Emperor and as a sign of the
revival of former glory of the Empire. However, before speaking about the "revival of the glory" weíll first examine the size of the "Great"
Empire of Peterís times.
In all unchanged maps before 1772, including maps in the first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, the territory subject to the Romanov
dynasty "extended" in the West from Riga and Smolensk to Belgorod abutting Little Tartary, better known as Zaporozskaya Sech .
In the South its border passed along the Don, rounding the Volga in its lower and middle flow, passing to the North of Samara and abutting the
Ural (Riphean) mountains at this latitude. In the East its border was along the Urals abutting against the Kara Sea. In the North it bordered
upon Lapland and Sweden. The Romanovsí Empire was called Muscovite Tartary. (2)
It is of interest that on all European maps dating up to the end of the 18th century the Tsar of Moscow (who has always been identified as
the head of the huge Russian Empire in the modern (rewritten) version of the history) was listed as a ruler of Muscovite Tartary (only!), or
even as a duke of Moscow on some maps.
In the Encyclopedia Britannica of 1771 the Russian Empire, better known as Great Tartary, occupied the territory to the east of
the Don at the latitude of Samara up to the Urals and the whole territory east of the Urals up to the Pacific ocean on the Asian part of Eurasia:
"TARTARY, a vast country in the northern parts of Asia, bounded by Siberia on the north and west: this is called Great
Tartary. The Tartars who lie south of Moscovy and Siberia, are those of Astracan, Circassia, and Dagistan, situated north-west of the
Caspian-sea; the Calmuc Tartars, who lie between Siberia and the Caspian-sea; the Usbec Tartars and Moguls, who lie north of Persia and India;
and lastly, those of Tibet, who lie north-west of China." (3).
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica of 1771, there was an enormous country of Tartary, with provinces of different sizes.
The greatest province of this empire was named Great Tartary and covered West Siberia, East Siberia and the Far East.
In the southeast, Chinese Tartary bordered it (please, do not confuse it with China). A so-called Independent Tartary
(Middle Asia) was to the south of Great Tartary. Tibet Tartary (Tibet) was situated to the northwest of China and to the southwest
of Chinese Tartary. In the north of India was Mongolian Tartary (Mogul Empire, modern Pakistan).
Uzbek Tartary (Bukaria, modern Uzbekistan) was nestled among Independent Tartary in the north, Chinese Tartary in the
northeast, Tibet Tartary in the southeast, Mongolian Tartary in the south, and Persia in the southwest.
There were also several Tartaries in Europe: Muscovy or Muscovite Tartary, Kuban Tartary and Little
The meaning of the word "Tartary" was explained in Part I of this article. It is clear that it has nothing to do with modern Tatars just as
Mongolian Empire has no connection with modern Mongolia. Mongolian Tartary (Mogul Empire) was situated in the area of modern
Pakistan, while modern Mongolia is in the north of modern China, or between Great Tartary and Chinese Tartary.
The Mogul Empire of the 18th century and modern Mongolia are divided by a distance of thousands of kilometers as well as by the
greatest mountain range on earth Ė the Himalayas; they are inhabited by totally different people, who have nothing in common. Generally
speaking, the word "ŐÓgul" (Mogol) is of Greek origin and means "the Great" and, thus, has nothing to do with the self-name of any Asiatic tribe.
Thus, glancing at the maps of the 17th-18th centuries, we will see ten different Tartaries at the least, indicating that they were recently
parts of a united Slavonic-Aryan Empire, which in the Middle Ages was known as Great Tartary in Western Europe.
So many Tartaries appeared when outlying provinces separated from the Slavonic-Aryan Empire (Great Tartary) when the Empire
weakened as a result of the invasion the hordes of dzungars (4), which took and completely destroyed the capital of this Empire
Ė Asgard-Iriyskiy Ė in 7038 according to Slavonic chronology (or in 1530 A.D.).
However, even after the loss of its outlying provinces, the Slavonic-Aryan Empire was the greatest country in the world at the end of
the 18th century. It encompassed part of southeast Europe, Western Siberia, Eastern Siberia, the Far East, a considerable part of North America,
and many islands and archipelagos. Here we can see an imposing list of territories that were beyond the Romanovsí power until the time of
Catherine II (1729-1796). Weíll come back to that a little bit later, and meanwhile let us return to the epoch of "Peter the Great".
Peters Iís "great empire" was the territory of Moscovy or Muscovite Tartary. This shows that it had been the province of the
Slavonic-Aryan Empire (Great Tartary) quite recently. Its separation occured during the rule of Dmitry Donskoy, who took absolute power
in Vladimir-Suzdal kniazhestvo (principality). Before Dmitry Donskoy there was no absolute monarchy in this principality-province
of the Slavonic-Aryan Empire. The position of Velikii Kniaz (5) (Grand Duke) was not hereditary but appointed. He was chosen
from the most honorable men of the Kniazís family.
Initially only a person who had a predisposition passed through his genes to possess certain knowledge and abilities was called a Kniaz.
"Kniaz" in the parent Slavonic language (i.Ś., at a genetic level) means: "ęone who has concern for the perfection (refinement) of the
Earth" or, simply, kniaz is an "innermost refinement of the Earth" (6). In other words, only a person enlightened by knowledge could
become a kniaz, an advanced person evolved beyond the rest. Not everyone could attain enlightenment by knowledge; nor could it be
purchased, stolen or appropriated.
When such a person reached a state similar to enlightenment, he appeared to shine from within, which most people could see and feel.
Because of this phenomenon these people were called "Shining", that later, after the perversion of the essence of this concept, "Your Radiance" (7)
became the norm of address to everyone, who, on paper, occupied the post of "kniaz."
Undoubtedly, the properties and qualities necessary for this enlightenment by knowledge were preserved at the genetic level and handed
down to children (8). However, genetic qualities were only one necessary condition for achieving enlightenment by knowledge. It also
required personal qualities of a bearer of these genetics. Therefore not all children, sometimes none of kniaz's children, achieved enlightenment
by knowledge. Or sometimes children, having attained the initial stages of enlightenment, could commit follies due to, for example,
misunderstanding, being guided by the best motives from their point of view, but in fact Ė erroneous, or following their perverted personal
This was observed in the actions of Dmitry Donskoy (1350-1389), who, having been sufficiently poisoned by Christian i
deas, considered the absolute personal power the only method for obtaining prosperity for his Motherland. He abolished the post of
tysyatsky (9) after death in 1374 of the last tysyatsky, a noble boyar (10) Vasiliy Veliyaminov. This was an
irreparable error by Dmitry Donskoy that bore its fruit in the form of the "Great Russian Revolution" in 1917.
This led to unreasonable actions by the last tysyatsky boyar Vasiliy Veliyaminovís son, Ivan Veliyaminov, who having been
deprived of this post, betrayed Dmitry Donskoy and became the leader of the opposition. Demanding the restoration of old traditions,
he resorted to the help of Slavonic-Aryan Empireís enemies, the Genoese merchants, who were backed up by the Catholic church and
all of the Western European monarchs, who relatively recently changed from appointed heads of provinces into absolute rulers of their
"domains" and fiercely hated the Slavonic-Aryan Empire.
Ivan Veliyaminov won the Slavs-Russiansí overt enemies over to his side, which convinced Dmitry Donskoy of the rightfulness of his
own actions. The error of the patriot of Russia, who undoubtedly was Dmitry Donskoy, and the blindness of the offended noble boyar,
Ivan Veliyaminov, resulted in civil war within the limits of the province, which still was called Moscow Tartary in the times of Dmitry
Donskoy. As a result of this civil war, Dmitry Donskoyís army defeated Ivan Veliyaminovís (Mamay) army, which consisted of Genoese
hirelings and knights of Western Europe, as well as fighting squads of Russian Cossacks led by Russian kniazs, who stood up for old
If boyar Ivan Veliyaminov had not appealed to Russiaís overt enemies for help, the modern history would be completely different. It seems
that this "help" was cunningly offered to him; and Ivan Veliyaminovís sense of personal offense made him blind while choosing the means
of his self-assertion and did the Russian state system a huge disservice.
The thing is that the power of the tysyatsky, a military authority, was practically equal to the power of Velikii Kniaz.
This created a balance of power that prevented neither the Velikii Kniaz, the appointed civil ruler of the province, who
in fact was Dmitry Donskoy, nor the tysyatsky, also an appointed leader and which Ivan Veliyaminov claimed to be, from obtaining
absolute power ó the power inevitably leading the country to catastrophe.
Absolute power decomposes human beings, especially those spiritually immature, as in fact were both protagonists of this historical
performance, the scenario of which was carefully thought through by one and the same director. Certain words, in certain moments, in a certain
emotional state were said to both participants. Unfortunately, they both began to act in compliance with the scenario obviously written by
others; and the history of the whole world "took" quite another path, the worst one.
Nevertheless, this happened, and one more part of the Slavonic-Aryan Empire broke away from the maternal body of the Empire. It became
separated and practically independent from its mother country. However, one of the protagonists played his role quite differently from what
was expected of him.
After obtaining absolute power, Dmitry Donskoy managed to maintain complete independence from the backstage players and to preserve
most traditions adopted in the Slavonic-Aryan Empire, thus to saving pretty close and friendly relations with the Empire. This compelled the
plotters to search for other ways to destroy the Slavonic-Aryan Empire.
The Empire could not send its main military basic forces to the western province due to that fact that at its southeast borders they were
involved in military conflicts with the hordes of dzungars, that were being ousted slowly by the Chinese and had no choice but to move to
the north and north-west, which meant only one Ė a continuous war for total extermination. The destruction of the city Asgard-Iriyskiy,
the capital of the Empire, in 7038 (Slavonic-Aryan system of chronology) or in 1530 A.D was the result of this conflict.
Let us return to the Romanovs. By the time of Piotr Alekseevich Romanovís appearance on the historical arena, his grandfather had
destroyed the ancient Books of Ranks and Genealogical Books, thus paying his debts off to his owners. One may think:
"There is nothing unusual in this situation. The Romanovs destroyed these books to hide their usurpation of the tsar's power and wrote the
Velvet Book in exchange. Big deal. What's wrong with that?"
This is "wrong" because due to it, the falsification of Russian history became possible: "primitive Slavs invited Varangians to govern
them; 300 years of the Mongol or Tatar yoke", which in fact did not exist, because Russians, Slavs, were those Moguls (Mongols) and
Tartars, as they were called by Western Europeans then.
Peter the "Great" is a very interesting and contradictory historical figure. Let us consider the rumors about his substitution during
young Peterís journey with the Grand Embassy (12). A twenty-six-year-old young man departed with this embassy. He was quite tall,
of sturdy build, physically healthy, with wavy hair and a birth-mark on his left cheek; perfectly educated, who loved everything
Russian; a Christian orthodox, who knew the Bible by heart, etc.
A completely different person appeared two years later. It was a man who hardly spoke Russian, hated everything Russian, who did
not manage to learn to write Russian to the end of his life and who had forgotten everything that he had known before his departure with
the Grand Embassy and had miraculously acquired new skills and abilities. He had no birth-mark on his left cheek; he had straight hair;
he looked like an unhealthy, forty-year-old man.
Indeed, quite considerable changes happened to this young man during his two-year absence, didnít it?
It is of interest that in the papers of the Grand Embassy there was no notes that Mikhaylov (young Peter used this name during the
embassy) was taken ill with a jungle fever; after all, the members of the embassy knew perfectly well who "Mikhaylov" was in reality.
The man who returned from the journey was sick with fever in a chronic form. He showed signs of long-term treatment with mercuric
medications, which were then used to treat a dengue fever. However, it is important to notice that the Grand Embassy used the northern
marine way, while dengue fever can be "caught" only in southern waters and by visiting a jungle.
Moreover, after his return from the Grand Embassy, Peter I demonstrated considerable experience in a marine boarding fight. He
possessed specific skills that could be acquired only through frequent use in practice, requiring personal participation in many boarding
battles. All these facts demonstrate that the man who returned with the Grand Embassy was a skilled seaman who had participated in many
marine battles and navigated a lot in the southern seas.
Before his journey Peter I did not take part in marine battles because during his childhood and youth Moscovy or Muscovite Tartary
did not have outlets to the seas, except to the White Sea, which cannot be called tropical under any circumstances. Peter I visited it very
rarely and as an honored passenger only. Moreover, once he saved his life by a miracle when visiting the Solovetskiy monastery in a launch
during a heavy storm. On the occasion of his salvation in the storm, he made a memorable cross with his own hands to place in the
Another fact is also of interest. Young Peter loved his wife (tsarina Evdokia) very much. He missed her during his journey and
wrote her numerous letters, but when he came back from the Grand Embassy he sent her to a convent for no reason whatsoever, without even
meeting her. There were also some sudden deaths upon Peterís return from the Grand Embassy in 7207 (Slavonic system of chronology) or
1699 A.D. His former "mentor" P. Gordon and his "friend" F. Lefort died almost simultaneously and "suddenly". It was their suggestion
that Peter would want to go incognito with the Grand Embassy (13).
We can go on and enumerate distinctions between the person who departed with the Grand Embassy and the person who returned
to Moscow. A great number of facts support Peter Iís substitution during his journey. Most likely that substitution happened because Peter
did not appear to be as compliant as P. Gordon and F. Lefortís bosses wished him to be. Taking into account this scenario, nobody would
envy the real Peterís destiny.
Anyway, whether it was a genuine Peter I or a foundling, he performed all his "great acts" only after his return from the Grand Embassy.
Let us contemplate these "great acts" more closely:
1. Right after his arrival he introduced the Christian calendar into practice in 7208 (Slavonic system of chronology)
or in 1700 A.D. Undoubtedly, he had been aware perfectly of the Christian calendarís existence, as he was educated as an orthodox
However, before the Embassy he did not even consider reforming the system of chronology.
Thus the Slavonic system of chronology dating back to the signing of a peaceful agreement between the Slavonic-Aryan Empire and
Ancient China disappeared for good. That means that the thousands-year-long history of the Russian people disappeared also, and conditions
for falsification of its modern version arose. This job was done by the "great Russian historiographers" Ė Gottlieb (Theophil) Siegfried Bayer,
Gerard Friedrich Muller, August Ludwig (von) Schlozer (all of whom are Germans). Within several generations, few remembered what
events happened before Peterís time.
2. He implanted the serfage, in fact slavery, in his own people. There was no form of slavery either in the
Slavonic-Aryan Empire or in any of its provinces. Never. Even prisoners of war captured during military operations did not become slaves
in the habitual sense of this word.
Captive enemies were not humiliated. They worked in the household of their "owner" as workers, ate at the same table, slept in the
same house. After working several years, the prisoners were free either to return to their Motherland or to stay and to be equal in all
respects, to create family, etc. This "slavery" consisted in the fact that their labor was not paid. Russians, who always had been free and
accepted the right of other people to be free, were converted into slaves in the worst sense of this word at the beginning of the 18th
century. Their Tsar-father, whose decisions must satisfy God, did it.
Nobody had been able to turn the Russian people into slaves during millennia; the Russians reject slavery in every fiber of their
being. However, their enemies managed to find a way to enslave the Russian people through the absolute monarchy. Thus, the absolute
monarchy established by Dmitry Donskoy yielded its first, but not last, bitter fruit and opened the bloody pages of the genocide of the
Russian people. Today nobody is in a hurry to speak about it and to defend the human rights of the Russians.
3. Peterís "reforms" and wars had a negative economic effect. The population from 1700 to 1725
decreased from 18 to 16 million. Serfdom with its chattel slavery system ruined and regressed the economy of the country.
While practically all Western European countries were ending the remains of slavery, understanding that they would be doomed
keeping it; in Muscovy their protege introduced slavery.
If Peter I indeed had cared for the Russian peopleís interests, he would have noticed this while visiting a great deal of Europe
during his journey with the Grand Embassy. And, if neither he nor his ambassadorial office staff had paid attention to this fact, it could
mean the following:
ŗ) He was a useless state and political figure who should not be allowed to govern under any circumstances. According to the
old tradition, the destruction of which was begun by Rurik (14) and completed by one of his descendants, Dmitry Donskoy, such
a man would never be able to be the head of state.
b) Peter I was mentally retarded, and, even more, must not have access to the helm of state.
c) Peter I was recruited by anti-Russian forces during his journey with the Grand Embassy. His recruitment is doubtful because
recruiters had nothing to offer him that he wouldnít already have had as an absolute monarch.
d) Peter I was cunningly ensnared to take part in the Grand Embassy by his false friends; and, while visiting Europe, he was
replaced by a man similar to him outwardly, who was not even his double. Numerous distinctions between the man who left his country
with the Grand Embassy and the man who returned, and the analysis of his deeds after his return, makes this supposition solely logical and
4. Peterís church reforms were directed against both faithful Christianity and the vokhvs-keepers of Slavonic-Aryan
Vedism gone underground. Peter I ordered all old books brought to the capital from all monasteries, cities and villages to "make copies".
It is of interest that nobody saw any books brought into the capital, just as nobody saw any copies made of any of these books. It is also
of interest that those who refused to fulfill this order were ordered to be executed. Quite a strange concern for books, isnít it?
5. Banishing Cossacks troops from the limits of Muscovy forced Peter I to begin forming his army according to
Western European standards. For this purpose Peter I invited the military from European countries, giving them enormous privileges in
comparison to Russian officers. The foreigners despised everything Russian and humiliated the Russian peasants driven into the army
by the monarchís will. The dominant influence of foreigners in the army, in the public service and in the educational system resulted in
the opposition of the aristocracy and people.
Peter I made a huge strategic mistake rejecting the utilization of Cossack troops due to their adherence to old traditions. The principle
of Cossack lavas (15) was used by the Bolsheviks, when they created their Cavalry, which played a deciding role in the Civil
War of 1918-1924.
6. Due to the defeat of the Swedish army, Sweden weakened and lost its influence over the rest of Europe. This resulted in
the strengthening of the latter at the expense of Russian troops. Russian territorial acquisitions were incommensurate with human losses
of 2 million persons. At that time the population of all Europe did not exceed 20 million.
It was Peter I who first began to commit genocide of the Russian people and Slavs in general. It was during his rule that the lives of the
Russians became a small change in the dirty political games of Western European politicians.
7. Peter the Great "cut a window through" Europe, providing Russia the outlet to the Gulf of Finland after the return of
former Russian territories as a result of victory over Sweden. Correctly stated, he "cut a window through" Muscovy for European countries.
Before Peter I the number of foreigners in the land of Muscovy was very limited. Mainly ambassadorial people, some merchants and a very
insignificant number of travelers had the right to cross the border.
Peter I allowed crowds of adventurers hungry to fill their empty pockets with riches of Russian land to gush into Muscovy. It is of
interest that all of them were given enormous privileges and advantages in comparison to both the truly Russian aristocracy and Russian
merchants and businessmen.
8. To maintain his army Peter I needed enormous sums of money, the greater part of which was plundered immediately by
both Russian scoundrels and Peterís beloved foreigners. Of this, the greater part was plundered precisely by foreigners, who were poor
in their Motherland or descended from impoverished noble families and were the second, third, etc. sons and did not have the right of
inheritance. Some of them returned to their Motherland with their pockets filled with extraordinary riches; others preferred to make a
profit from the work of people who were complete strangers to them.
9. Peter I imposed a great number of taxes to fill the quickly-emptying treasury. For this he brought vodka from
Sweden and created a government vodka monopoly. Vodka was sold in state taverns, inns and horse changing stations. Before the
Romanovs and, as early as in times of Ivan IV the Terrible (1530-1584), drunkenness was a vice punished by imprisonment and a
It was Peter I who began to implant hard drinking at all levels of Russian society by running a wide advertising campaign
and "inspiring" people by his own example to drink too much. The vodka monopoly brought fabulous profits into the treasury, what was
enough for his aims. The money spent by the treasury returned back quickly with minimum expenses. In soviet times the Bolsheviks
"improved" Peterís undertaking by making vodka a liquid currency, thus robbing people, taking away the pitiful kopecks paid to them
as a salary.
This list can be continued endlessly. All Peter Iís "great deeds" before his death in 7233 (Slavonic-Aryan chronology) or 1725
A.D., brought Muscovy (which was beginning to be called the Russian Empire) to a deplorable economic condition comparable only
to that of The Time of Troubles 1(6), which the Romanovs and their relatives had taken a very active part in creating.
Victory over Sweden brought enormous calamities to the Russian people or, more precisely, to those Russians moaning under
the yoke of the Romanovs, a real yoke, and not the non-existent Mongol-Tatar yoke they invented.
Let us glance at Peterís "Great Empire". The Muscovy of Peterís time is shown on the map of 1717. The domain of the Romanovs
surely considerably exceeded the size of any European country but had nothing in common with that huge Russian Empire
(Great Tartary or Slavonic-Aryan Empire) that "Russian" historians arrogated to Moscovy later in their works. The eastern border
of Peterís Empire reached only the western offspurs of the Ural Mountains!
It is of interest that on this map there are several Novogorods. Two cities: Novogrod on Ladoga, Novogorod on Volga, as well
as the area within the limits of the Golden Ring, a group of cities labeled on the map with Novogrod written in capital letters. It
confirms the academician Fomenkoís supposition, that the Great Novogorod was a group of cities of the Golden Ring, being the
commercial and cultural center of Muscovy, and not a small city on Ladoga. On the map even Moscow, the capital, is not highlighted
the way the Great Novogorod is. It is another confirmation of the falsification of Russian history.
Unfortunately, practically nothing is left in the history of the Russian people that in one way or another would not have been
falsified. Maybe, it is time for all Russians to know the truth about the Great past of our people, instead of the HIS-TOR-Y handed
to us on a silver platter?! Only here there is a question: who benefits from this "silver platter"?!
Nicolai Levashov, July 29, 2004
1 Demin V.M. From Russiches to Russians, Moscow-Omsk, "Russian Truth", 2003, p. 24.
2 Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. II, Edinburgh, 1771, p. 682.
3 Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. III, Edinburgh, 1771, p. 887.
4 Dzungar (also Jungar or Zungar;) is the collective identity of several Oirat (West Mongolian) tribes
5 Kniazí or knyaz is a word denoting a nobility rank. It is usually translated into English as either Prince or Duke,
although the correspondence is not exact.
The meaning of the term changed over the course of history. Initially the term was used to denote the chieftain of a tribe. Later, with
the development of feudal statehood, it become the title of a ruler of a state among East Slavs (kniazhestvo, traditionally
translated as duchy or principality), for example, of Kievan Rus.
As the degree of centralization grew, the ruler acquired the title Velikii Kniaz (translated as Grand Prince or Grand duke). He ruled
a Velikoe Knyazhestvo (Grand Duchy), while a ruler of its vassal constituent (udel, udelnoe kniazhestvo or volost Ė a region, province or
district) was called udelny kniaz or simply kniaz.
When Kievan Rus became fragmented in the 13th century, the title Kniaz continued to be used in Ruthenian states, including Novgorod,
Vladimir-Suzdal, Muscovy, Tver, Halych-Volynia, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
6 Grinevitch G.S. Parent Slavonic Written Language, Moscow, 1993, ISBN 5-85617-001-6.
7 Loan translation. Could correspond to English titles Your Grace, Your Serenity or Your Lordship.
8 N. Levashov. Spirit and Mind, Vol. 2, Chapter 9; San Francisco, 2003.
9 Tysyatsky (tysiatsky, sometimes translated "dux" or "Heerzog") was a military leader, who commanded a
people's volunteer army called tysyacha (a thousand) in Ancient Rus. In the Novgorod Republic, the tysyatsky was elected from boyars
at a veche (a popular assembly) for a period of one year and was an assistant to posadnik (a deputy of the Kniaz). In the Novgorod
Republic, tysyatskies were considered representatives of ordinary people. Alongside with the role as the military leaders, they were also
supposed to supervise the city fortifications, open veches, serve as ambassadors to foreign powers.
10 A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the Slavonic aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes.
11 G.V. Nosovsky, A.T. Fomenko. New chronology of Russia, England and Rome, Moscow, 2001.
12 The Grand Embassy was a Russian diplomatic mission sent to Western Europe in 1697-1698.
13 E.T. Baida The Great Impostor (zarpeter.narod.ru/facts.htm), S. Karpushenko Pseudo-Peter. The Scaffold
For The Emperor, Moscow, 2000.
14 Rurik or Riurik (830Ė879) was a Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgard
settlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Russia until the 17th century.
15 A Cossak lava is a tactical military disposition when a close formation of 100 riders attacs forming an arch.
16 The Time of Troubles (Russian: Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of
interregnum between the death of the last Muscovy Tsar, Feodor Ivanovich of the Rurik Dynasty, in 1598 and the establishment of the
Romanov Dynasty in 1613 characterized by a grave political, economic and social crisis that led to the temporary collapse of the Russian